Clin Microbiol Infect. 2023 Mar 11:S1198-743X(23)00117-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2023.03.003. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common agent of viral respiratory infections with significant morbidity and mortality in adults. The objective of this study is to determine risk factors for mortality, invasive mechanical ventilation and to describe the characteristics of patients who received ribavirin.
METHODS: Retrospective multicenter observational cohort study conducted in Great Paris area hospitals, including patients hospitalized between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2019 for documented RSV infection. Data were extracted from the AP-HP Health Data Warehouse. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality.
RESULTS: 1168 patients were hospitalized for RSV infection, including 288 (24.6%) patients who required ICU admission. The median [interquartile range] age of patients was 75 [63-85] years, 54% (n=631/1168) of them were women. In-hospital mortality was 6.6% (n=77/1168) in the whole cohort and 12.8% (n=37/288) in ICU patients. Factors associated with hospital mortality were age>85 years (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=6.29 95% confidence interval [2.47-15.98]), acute respiratory failure (aOR=2.83 [1.19-6.72]), non-invasive (aOR=12.60 [1.41-112.36]) and invasive mechanical ventilation support (aOR=30.13 [3.17-286.27]) and neutropenia (aOR=13.19 [3.27-53.27]). Factors associated with invasive mechanical ventilation were chronic heart (aOR=1.98 [1.20-3.26]) or respiratory failure (aOR=2.83 [1.67-4.80]), and co-infection (aOR=2.62 [1.60-4.30]). Patients who were treated with ribavirin were significantly younger than others (62 [55-69] vs 75 [63-86] years; p<0.001), more frequently males (n=34/48 (70.8%) vs n=503/1120 (44.9%); p=0.001), and almost exclusively immunocompromised (n=46/48 (95.8%) vs n=299/1120 (26.7%); p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The mortality rate of patients hospitalized with RSV infections was 6.6%. Twenty-five percent of patients required ICU admission.