Cureus. 2023 Feb 6;15(2):e34687. doi: 10.7759/cureus.34687. eCollection 2023 Feb.
The advances in the development of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have expanded the variety of favorable approaches to treating diabetes mellitus. It is possible to have an improvement in insulin resistance and natriuresis by inhibiting the reabsorption of sodium and glucose at the proximal tubules in the kidney, and a decrease in cardiovascular mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition, SGLT2i provides renoprotection by reducing intraglomerular higher blood pressure. The usage of SGLT2i also provides hemodynamic and metabolic benefits. SGLT2i demonstrates large cardiovascular benefits in patients both with and without diabetes, as well as in existing heart failure patients. These SGLT2i have direct and indirect effects on the kidney, likely contributing to stated cardiovascular benefits. Here we review the literature on the direct effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in diabetic patients with heart failure (HF). We assume that the benefit in cardiac cells modulated by SGLT2i is due to the inhibition of sodium transporters affecting intracellular sodium homeostasis. In conclusion, the sodium transporters in cardiac cells provide, at least partly, an example of the clinical benefits of SGLT2i observed in HF patients.
PMID:36909046 | PMC:PMC9994637 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.34687