Infect Dis (Lond). 2023 Mar 11:1-10. doi: 10.1080/23744235.2023.2187081. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The combined effectiveness of remdesivir and dexamethasone in subgroups of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 is poorly investigated.
METHODS: In this nationwide retrospective cohort study, we included 3826 patients with COVID-19 hospitalised between February 2020 and April 2021. The primary outcomes were use of invasive mechanical ventilation and 30-day mortality, comparing a cohort treated with remdesivir and dexamethasone with a previous cohort treated without remdesivir and dexamethasone. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting logistic regression to assess associations with progression to invasive mechanical ventilation and 30-day mortality between the two cohorts. The analyses were conducted overall and by subgroups based on patient characteristics.
RESULTS: Odds ratio for progression to invasive mechanical ventilation and 30-day mortality in individuals treated with remdesivir and dexamethasone compared to treatment with standard of care alone was 0.46 (95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.57) and 0.47 (95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.56), respectively. The reduced risk of mortality was observed in elderly patients, overweight patients and in patients requiring supplemental oxygen at admission, regardless of sex, comorbidities and symptom duration.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with remdesivir and dexamethasone had significantly improved outcomes compared to patients treated with standard of care alone. These effects were observed in most patient subgroups.