Heart Fail Rev. 2023 Mar 10. doi: 10.1007/s10741-023-10303-8. Online ahead of print.
As the prevalence of heart failure (HF) continues to rise, prompt diagnosis and management of various medical conditions, which may lead to HF exacerbation and result in poor patient outcomes, are of paramount importance. Infection has been identified as a common, though under-recognized, precipitating factor of acute heart failure (AHF), which can cause rapid development or deterioration of HF signs and symptoms. Available evidence indicates that infection-related hospitalizations of patients with AHF are associated with higher mortality, protracted length of stay, and increased readmission rates. Understanding the intricate interaction of both clinical entities may provide further therapeutic strategies to prevent the occurrence of cardiac complications and improve prognosis of patients with AHF triggered by infection. The purpose of this review is to investigate the incidence of infection as a causative factor in AHF, explore its prognostic implications, elucidate the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, and highlight the basic principles of the initial diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in the emergency department.
PMID:36897491 | DOI:10.1007/s10741-023-10303-8