Increased Serum Sodium at Acute Kidney Injury Onset Predicts In-Hospital Death

Link to article at PubMed

J Clin Med Res. 2023 Feb;15(2):90-98. doi: 10.14740/jocmr4845. Epub 2023 Feb 28.


BACKGROUND: Over the last decades, acute kidney injury (AKI) has been identified as a potentially fatal diagnosis which substantially increases in-hospital mortality in the short term and morbidity/mortality in the long term. However, reliable biomarkers for predicting AKI-associated outcomes are still missing. In this study, we assessed whether serum sodium, measured at different time points during the in-hospital treatment period, provided prognostic information in AKI.

METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational cohort study. AKI subjects were identified via the in-hospital AKI alert system. Serum sodium and potassium levels were documented at five pre-defined time points: hospital admission, AKI onset, minimum estimated glomerular filtration rate, minimum and maximum of the respective electrolyte during the treatment period. In-hospital death, the need for kidney replacement therapy (KRT) and recovery of kidney function were defined as endpoints.

RESULTS: Patients who suffered in-hospital death (n = 37, 23.1%) showed significantly higher serum sodium levels at diagnosis of AKI (survivors: 145.7 ± 2.13 vs. non-survivors: 138.8 ± 0.636 mmol/L, P = 0.003). A logistic regression model was significant for serum sodium levels in patients with in-hospital death (X2, P = 0.003; odds ratio = 1.08 (1.022 - 1.141); R2 = 0.082; d = 0.089). This suggests an increase of the relative risk for in-hospital death by 8% with every unit of serum sodium increase. Patients with a sodium above the upper normal range at AKI diagnosis were also more likely to suffer in-hospital death (P = 0.001).

CONCLUSION: In summary, we present evidence that serum sodium, measured at time of AKI diagnosis, potentially serves as a predictor for in-hospital death in patients with AKI.

PMID:36895623 | PMC:PMC9990719 | DOI:10.14740/jocmr4845

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