Sex Differences in Epidemiology, Care, and Outcomes in Patients With Acute Chest Pain

Link to article at PubMed

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2023 Mar 14;81(10):933-945. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2022.12.025.


BACKGROUND: Discrepancies in cardiovascular care for women are well described, but few data assess the entire patient journey for chest pain care.

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess sex differences in epidemiology and care pathways from emergency medical services (EMS) contact through to clinical outcomes following discharge.

METHODS: This is a state-wide population-based cohort study including consecutive adult patients attended by EMS for acute undifferentiated chest pain in Victoria, Australia (January 1, 2015, to June 30, 2019). EMS clinical data were individually linked to emergency and hospital administrative datasets, and mortality data and differences in care quality and outcomes were assessed using multivariable analyses.

RESULTS: In 256,901 EMS attendances for chest pain, 129,096 attendances (50.3%) were women, and mean age was 61.6 years. Age-standardized incidence rates were marginally higher for women compared with men (1,191 vs 1,135 per 100,000 person-years). In multivariable models, women were less likely to receive guideline-directed care across most care measures including transport to hospital, prehospital aspirin or analgesia administration, 12-lead electrocardiogram, intravenous cannula insertion, and off-load from EMS or review by emergency department clinicians within target times. Similarly, women with acute coronary syndrome were less likely to undergo angiography or be admitted to a cardiac or intensive care unit. Thirty-day and long-term mortality was higher for women diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, but lower overall.

CONCLUSIONS: Substantial differences in care are present across the spectrum of acute chest pain management from first contact through to hospital discharge. Women have higher mortality for STEMI, but better outcomes for other etiologies of chest pain compared with men.

PMID:36889871 | DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2022.12.025

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