Efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants versus vitamin K antagonists for left ventricular thrombus: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

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Kardiologiia. 2023 Feb 28;63(2):19-26. doi: 10.18087/cardio.2023.2.n2200.


Aim To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) as compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKA) in the treatment of left ventricular (LV) thrombosis.Material and methods A search was performed in PubMed and Google Scholar for studies that compared DOAC and VKA in the treatment of LV thrombosis with respect of thromboembolic events, hemorrhagic complications, and thrombus resolution. The effect was evaluated with the odds ratio (OR) that was computed using a fixed effects model.Results For these systematic review and meta-analysis, 19 studies were selected, including 2 randomized and 17 cohort studies. The articles included into these systematic review and meta-analysis, were published from 2018 through 2021. In total, 2970 patients (mean age, 58.8 лет; 1879 (61.2 %) men) with LV thrombus were included into the meta-analysis. Mean follow-up duration was 17.9 months. The meta-analysis showed no significant difference between DOAC and VKA in the incidence of the study outcomes: thromboembolic events (OR, 0.86; 95 % CI: 0.67-1.10; р=0.22), hemorrhagic complications (OR, 0.77; 95 % CI: 0.55-1.07; р=0.12), thrombus resolution (OR, 0.96; 95 % CI: 0.76-1.22; р=0.77). In a subgroup analysis, rivaroxaban compared to VKA significantly (79%) reduced the risk of thromboembolic complications (OR, 0.21; 95 % CI: 0.05-0.83; р=0.03) with no significant differences in hemorrhagic events (OR, 0.60; 95 % CI: 0.21-1.71; р=0.34) or thrombus resolution (OR, 1.44; 95 % CI: 0.83-1.31; р=0.20). The apixaban treatment group had significantly more (4.88 times) cases of thrombus resolution than the VKA treatment group (OR, 4.88; 95 % CI: 1.37-17.30; р=0.01); for apixaban, data on hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications were not available.Conclusions The therapeutic efficacy and side effects of the DOAC treatment for LV thrombosis were similar to those of VKA with respect of thromboembolic events, hemorrhage, and thrombus resolution.

PMID:36880139 | DOI:10.18087/cardio.2023.2.n2200

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