Impact of Bacteria Types on the Clinical Outcomes of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis

Link to article at PubMed

Dig Dis Sci. 2023 Mar 7. doi: 10.1007/s10620-023-07867-8. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cirrhotic patients presenting with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) have elevated risk of short-term mortality. While high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-Sodium score (MELD-Na) and ascites culture yielding multi-drug resistance (MDR) bacteria are well established risk factors for further aggravating mortality, the impact of individual, causative microorganisms and their respective pathogenesis have not been previously investigated.

METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 267 cirrhotic patients at two tertiary care hospitals undergoing paracentesis from January 2015 to January 2021 who presented with ascitic PMN count > 250 cells/mm3. The primary outcome was SBP progression defined as death or liver transplantation within 1-month of paracentesis stratified by microorganism type.

RESULTS: Of 267 patients with SBP, the ascitic culture yielded causative microorganism in 88 cases [median age 57 years (IQR 52-64)]; 68% male; median MELD-Na 29 (IQR 23-35). The microbes isolated were E. coli (33%), Streptococcus (15%), Klebsiella (13%), Enterococcus (13%), Staphylococcus (9%) and others (18%); 41% were MDR. Cumulative incidence of SBP progression within 1-month was 91% (95% CI 67-100) for Klebsiella, 59% (95% CI 42-76) for E. coli, and 16% (95% CI 4-51) for Streptococcus. After adjusting for MELD-Na and MDR, risk of SBP progression remained elevated for Klebsiella (HR 2.07; 95% CI 0.98-4.24; p-value = 0.06) and decreased for Streptococcus (HR 0.28; 95% CI 0.06-1.21; p-value = 0.09) compared to all other bacteria.

CONCLUSION: Our study found Klebsiella-associated SBP had worse clinical outcomes while Streptococcus-associated SBP had the most favorable outcomes after accounting for MDR and MELD-Na. Thus, identification of the causative microorganism is crucial not only for optimizing the treatment but for prognostication.

PMID:36879176 | DOI:10.1007/s10620-023-07867-8

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