J Clin Med. 2023 Feb 5;12(4):1257. doi: 10.3390/jcm12041257.
BACKGROUND: Hypochloremia reflects neuro-hormonal activation in patients with heart failure (HF). However, the prognostic impact of persistent hypochloremia in those patients remains unclear.
METHODS: We collected the data of patients who were hospitalized for HF at least twice between 2010 and 2021 (n = 348). Dialysis patients (n = 26) were excluded. The patients were divided into four groups based on the absence/presence of hypochloremia (<98 mmol/L) at discharge from their first and second hospitalizations: Group A (patients without hypochloremia at their first and second hospitalizations, n = 243); Group B (those with hypochloremia at their first hospitalization and without hypochloremia at their second hospitalization, n = 29); Group C (those without hypochloremia at their first hospitalization and with hypochloremia at their second hospitalization, n = 34); and Group D (those with hypochloremia at their first and second hospitalizations, n = 16).
RESULTS: a Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that all-cause mortality and cardiac mortality were the highest in Group D compared to the other groups. A multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that persistent hypochloremia was independently associated with both all-cause death (hazard ratio 3.490, p < 0.001) and cardiac death (hazard ratio 3.919, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HF, prolonged hypochloremia over two hospitalizations is associated with an adverse prognosis.
PMID:36835793 | DOI:10.3390/jcm12041257