Oral Anticoagulation in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease

Link to article at PubMed

Medicina (Kaunas). 2023 Feb 12;59(2):346. doi: 10.3390/medicina59020346.


The administration of an anticoagulant in patients with liver disease (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-NASH, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease-NAFLD, chronic hepatitis, or cirrhosis) who have an indication (atrial fibrillation, venous thrombosis, or pulmonary embolism) is challenging because there is an imbalance between thrombosis and bleeding. There is a need to focus our attention on preventing risk factors because diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary behavior are risk factors for both NASH/NAFLD and AF, and these patients require anticoagulant treatment. Patients with advanced liver disease (Child-Pugh C) were excluded from studies, so vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are still recommended. Currently, VKAs are recommended for other conditions (antiphospholipid syndrome, mitral valve stenosis, and mechanical valve prosthesis). Amongst the patients under chronic anticoagulant treatment, especially for the elderly, bleeding as a result of the improper use of warfarin is one of the important causes of emergency admissions due to adverse reactions. DOACs are considered to be efficient and safe, with apixaban offering superior protection against stroke and a good safety profile as far as major bleeding is concerned compared to warfarin. DOACs are safe in the Child-Pugh A and B classes (except rivaroxaban), and in the Child-Pugh C class are contraindicated. Given that there are certain and reliable data for chronic kidney disease regarding the recommendations, in liver function impairment more randomized studies must be carried out, as the current data are still uncertain. In particular, DOACs have a simple administration, minimal medication interactions, a high safety and effectiveness profile, and now a reversal agent is available (for dabigatran and idarucizumab). Patients are also statistically more compliant and do not require INR monitoring.

PMID:36837547 | DOI:10.3390/medicina59020346

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *