Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2023 Feb 23. doi: 10.1007/s10096-023-04572-2. Online ahead of print.
It is unclear whether norfloxacin predisposes to infections by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). We aimed to evaluate if patients with cirrhosis receiving norfloxacin prophylaxis at the time of the diagnosis of bacterial infections were more likely to present a multidrug-resistant isolate than those without prophylaxis. This is a cross-sectional study of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and bacterial infections from Argentina and Uruguay (NCT03919032) from September 2018 to December 2020. The outcome variable was a multidrug-resistant bacterial infection. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of norfloxacin on infection caused by MDROs considering potential confounders. Among the 472 patients from 28 centers, 53 (11%) were receiving norfloxacin at the time of the bacterial infection. Patients receiving norfloxacin had higher MELD-sodium, were more likely to have ascites or encephalopathy, to receive rifaximin, beta-blockers, and proton-pump inhibitors, to have a nosocomial or health-care-associated infection, prior bacterial infections, admissions to critical care units or invasive procedures, and to be admitted in a liver transplant center. In addition, we found that 13 (24.5%) patients with norfloxacin and 90 (21.5%) of those not receiving it presented infections caused by MDROs (adjusted OR 1.55; 95% CI: 0.60-4.03; p = 0.360). The use of norfloxacin prophylaxis at the time of the diagnosis of bacterial infections was not associated with multidrug resistance. These results help empiric antibiotic selection and reassure the current indication of norfloxacin prophylaxis in well-selected patients.Study registration number: NCT03919032.
PMID:36820931 | DOI:10.1007/s10096-023-04572-2