Hepatotoxicity of immune checkpoint inhibitors: What is Currently Known

Link to article at PubMed

Hepatol Commun. 2023 Feb 20;7(3):e0063. doi: 10.1097/HC9.0000000000000063. eCollection 2023 Mar 1.


BACKGROUND: This systematic review and network meta-analysis aimed to provide a complete hepatotoxicity profile, hepatotoxicity spectrum, and safety ranking of immune checkpoint inhibitor drugs for cancer treatment.

METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, psycINFO, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov. websites were searched, and a manual search of relevant reviews and trials up to January 1, 2022, was undertaken. Head-to-head III randomized controlled trials comparing any 2 or 3 of the following treatments or different doses of the same immune checkpoint inhibitor drug were included: programmed death 1 (PD-1), programmed death ligand 1, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors and conventional therapy. We included 106 randomized trials (n=164,782) containing 17 treatment arms.

RESULTS: The overall incidence of hepatotoxicity was 4.06%. The rate of fatal liver adverse events was 0.07%. The programmed death ligand 1 inhibitor+targeted therapy drug+chemotherapy group had the highest risk of treatment-related increases in all-grade alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, and the differences were significant. For immune-related hepatotoxicity, no significant difference was found between PD-1 and CTLA-4 inhibitors for all-grade hepatotoxicity; however, CTLA-4 inhibitors were associated with a higher risk of grade 3-5 hepatotoxicity than PD-1 inhibitors.

CONCLUSIONS: The highest incidence of hepatotoxicity and fatality was observed with triple therapy. The overall incidence of hepatotoxicity was similar between different dual regimens. For immune checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy, the overall risk of immune-mediated hepatotoxicity related to CTLA-4 inhibitors did not differ significantly from that of PD-1 inhibitors. There was no direct relationship between the risk of liver injury and drug dose, whether monotherapy or combination therapy was used.

PMID:36802366 | DOI:10.1097/HC9.0000000000000063

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *