Lancet. 2023 Jan 19:S0140-6736(22)02125-0. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(22)02125-0. Online ahead of print.
Asthma is one of the most common chronic non-communicable diseases worldwide and is characterised by variable airflow obstruction, causing dyspnoea and wheezing. Highly effective therapies are available; asthma morbidity and mortality have vastly improved in the past 15 years, and most patients can attain good asthma control. However, undertreatment is still common, and improving patient and health-care provider understanding of when and how to adjust treatment is crucial. Asthma management consists of a cycle of assessment of asthma control and risk factors and adjustment of medications accordingly. With the introduction of biological therapies, management of severe asthma has entered the precision medicine era-a shift that is driving clinical ambitions towards disease remission. Patients with severe asthma often have co-existing conditions contributing to their symptoms, mandating a multidimensional management approach. In this Seminar, we provide a clinically focused overview of asthma; epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management in children and adults.