2023 Feb 13. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan–.
Meniere disease (MD) is a disorder of the inner ear characterized by hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. In most cases, it is slowly progressive and significantly impacts the social functioning of the individual affected.
Hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo are all common symptomatic complaints with many potential causes, yet true Meniere disease is quite rare and is fundamentally a diagnosis of exclusion. The current diagnostic criteria defined by the Barany society by Lopez-Escamez, et al. can help differentiate between probable and definite Meniere's disease.
Patients with a definite Meniere disease, according to the Barany Society, have:
Two or more spontaneous episodes of vertigo with each lasting 20 minutes to 12 hours
Audiometrically documented low- to medium-frequency sensorineural hearing loss in one ear, defining and locating to the affected ear on in at least one instance prior, during, or after one of the episodes of vertigo
Fluctuating aural symptoms (fullness, hearing, tinnitus) located in the affected ear
Not better accounted for by any other vestibular diagnosis
Probable Meniere disease can include the following clinical findings:
Two or more episodes of dizziness or vertigo, each lasting 20 minutes to 24 hours
Fluctuating aural symptoms (fullness, hearing, or tinnitus) in the affected ear
The condition is better explained by another vestibular diagnosis