2023 Mar 16. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan–.
Aspiration is common, even in healthy patients. Aspiration can have significant morbidity and mortality in certain circumstances. It is categorized based on the predominant material in the aspirate. If oropharyngeal secretions, orally ingested material, or partially digested gastric contents are aspirated, one would expect infectious pneumonia to develop. However, if pure gastric secretions are aspirated, then chemical pneumonitis is the result. If partially digested gastric contents are aspirated along with some gastric acid, a mixture of chemical pneumonitis and inoculation of the lungs with potentially pathogenic organisms can occur. In practice, it is prudent to treat chemical pneumonitis with prophylactic antibiotics because a superimposed infection occurs in over 25% of cases. It is difficult to determine the quality of the aspirate in most cases, and a combination of bacterial and chemical injury is common.