New Classification for the Combined Assessment of the Fractional Excretion of Urea Nitrogen and Estimated Plasma Volume Status in Acute Heart Failure

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J Am Heart Assoc. 2023 Jan 3;12(1):e025596. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.122.025596. Epub 2022 Dec 30.


Background The fractional excretion of urea nitrogen (FEUN) has been used as a renal blood flow index related to cardiac output, and the estimated plasma volume status (ePVS) as a body fluid volume index. However, the usefulness of their combination in acute decompensated heart failure (HF) management is unclear. We investigated the effect of 4 hemodynamic categories according to the high and low FEUN and ePVS values at discharge on the long-term prognosis of patients with acute decompensated HF. Methods and Results Between April 2011 and December 2018, we retrospectively identified 466 patients with acute decompensated HF with FEUN and ePVS values at discharge. Primary end point was postdischarge all-cause death. Secondary end points were (1) the composite of all-cause death and HF readmission, and (2) HF readmission in a time-to-event analysis. The patients were divided into 4 groups according to the high/low FEUN (≥35%, <35%) and ePVS (>5.5%, ≤5.5%) values at discharge: high-FEUN/low-ePVS, high-FEUN/high-ePVS, low-FEUN/low-ePVS, and low-FEUN/high-ePVS groups. During a median follow-up period of 28.1 months, there were 173 all-cause deaths (37.1%), 83 cardiovascular deaths (17.8%), and 121 HF readmissions (26.0%). The Kaplan-Meier curve analysis showed that the high-FEUN/low-ePVS group had a better prognosis than the other groups (log-rank test, P<0.001). In the multivariable Cox regression analysis, the low-FEUN/high-ePVS group had a higher mortality than the high-FEUN/low-ePVS group (hazard ratio, 2.92 [95% CIs, 1.73-4.92; P<0.001]). Conclusions The new classification of the 4 hemodynamic profiles using the FEUN and ePVS values may play an important role in improving outcomes in patients with stable acute decompensated HF.

PMID:36583422 | DOI:10.1161/JAHA.122.025596

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