BMC Med Educ. 2022 Dec 17;22(1):876. doi: 10.1186/s12909-022-03946-y.
BACKGROUND: Despite the advantages of simulation-based training, trainees are typically unable to view internal anatomical structures. This limitation can be overcome by using mixed reality (MR) wherein 3-D virtual anatomical images can be projected. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of an MR trainer for peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC) placement.
METHODS: Sixty-two participants used projected images of arm veins to place a PIVC in a mannequin arm. Participants were evaluated using a checklist on their ability to successfully place the PIVC. Participants completed a survey to elicit demographic information and perceptions of the trainer. A follow-up survey at two-weeks assessed clinical experiences with PIVC placement since using the MR trainer.
RESULTS: First attempt catheter placement was successful in 48 (77.4%) cases. Only 11 (17.7%) and 3 (4.8%) of participants caused 'extravasation' and 'hematoma' formation on their first attempt, respectively. Fifty-nine participants (95.2%) agreed that ability to see internal structures was useful, and 58 (93.5%, respectively) agreed that the interactivity promoted learning and that MR should be included in training.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study showed that use of a novel MR trainer for PIVC placement appears to provide an environment conducive to successful learning. Most participants were successful at PIVC placement on their first attempt and an overwhelming number found it helpful in identifying landmarks and confirming correct needle angles for insertion. Given the increasing emphasis on simulation training, highly immersive MR tools appear to offer promise to close the gap between classroom instruction and clinical experience.