Intern Med J. 2022 Oct 20. doi: 10.1111/imj.15938. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Medications remain an important contributor to the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). This study aimed to examine associations between (i) administration of medications known to reduce glomerular filtration rate (GFR), that is, GFR modifiers and subsequent hospital-acquired AKI; and (ii) potentially medication-related AKI and patient adverse outcomes.
METHODS: A retrospective cohort study utilising electronic health record data of patients admitted to a tertiary hospital in Australia in 2015. Timing of medication administration was compared with timing of AKI development. AKI cases were identified using an algorithm based on serum creatinine level changes. Multilevel regression models were applied with adjustment for relevant demographic and clinical factors.
RESULTS: Among 11 503 admissions, AKI was identified in 955 patients (8.3%) and 637 (66.7% of 955) were preceded by administration of a GFR modifier. Patients without prior AKI were 17% more likely to develop AKI after administration of these medications (adjusted odds ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.003-1.37). Older age and comorbidity with diabetes, acute myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, liver cirrhosis and multiple myeloma were also significant predictors. Patients with potentially medication-related AKI were 11.69 times more likely to die in hospital (95% CI 7.84-17.43) and stayed 3.49 times longer in hospital (95% CI 3.26-3.73), compared with those without AKI.
CONCLUSIONS: Administration of medications contributing to the reduction of GFR is associated with an increased risk of hospital-acquired AKI and worse patient outcomes. Caution is required when prescribing these medications to patients at risk of developing AKI, and monitoring patients for deterioration is needed if administered.
PMID:36264150 | DOI:10.1111/imj.15938