Efficacy and Safety of Convalescence Plasma Therapy in COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Link to article at PubMed

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2022 Oct 7;2022:7670817. doi: 10.1155/2022/7670817. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has outbroken into a global pandemic. The death rate for hospital patients varied between 11% and 15%. Although COVID-19 is extremely contagious and has a high fatality rate, the amount of knowledge available in the published literature and public sources is rapidly growing. The efficacy of convalescent plasma (CP) therapy for COVID-19 is controversial.

OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis was designed to assess the efficacy of CP therapy for COVID-19 through a literature survey.

METHODS: Until August 30, 2021, a literature search was undertaken in Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlling Trials (Central), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. The Risk Ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a fixed or random effect model in dichotomous data. Mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a fixed or random effect model in continuous data. Studies with missing or unsuitable data were presented descriptively in the outcomes.

RESULTS: In total, thirteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected for the present meta-analysis, which included a total of 13232 participants. Our results revealed that the CP group has lower mortality compared to the control group, and there was a statistically significant difference (RR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.89, Z = 2.92, P = 0.004 < 0.01); other secondary outcomes such as the shortness of breath symptom improved significantly in CP group (RR:1.48, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.93, Z = 2.85, P = 0.004 < 0.01), as well as Interleukin-6 (IL-6) (MD: -4.46, 95% CI: -8.28, -0.63, Z = 2.28, P = 0.02 < 0.05) and Ferritin (MD: -447.68, 95% CI: -501.75, -393.6, Z = 16.23, P < 0.00001) are reduced significantly in CP group. However, there was no statistically significant change in the ventilator withdrawal rate, imaging results improvement, or days to hospital discharge. There was also no substantial difference in viral nucleic acid negative conversion rate and neutralizing antibody-positive conversion rate, as well as the incidence of adverse reactions.

CONCLUSIONS: The safety and potential efficacy of convalescent plasma therapy offer a promising treatment strategy for COVID-19. CP therapy can reduce mortality and improve breath and inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and Ferritin in COVID-19 with no significant increase in adverse reactions. However, it does not affect improving virology indicators. In summary, more high-quality clinical trials are needed to verify the conclusion of the present study.

PMID:36248407 | PMC:PMC9568297 | DOI:10.1155/2022/7670817

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