Cureus. 2022 Sep 12;14(9):e29069. doi: 10.7759/cureus.29069. eCollection 2022 Sep.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a significant cause of cardiovascular deaths worldwide. There are many oral antihyperglycemic drugs available to treat diabetic patients. Among them, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors provide effective treatment in all stages of T2DM regardless of blood glucose levels and benefit the cardiovascular system. SGLT2 inhibitors have an additional diuretic effect that reduces blood pressure and hospitalizations and improves heart failure outcomes. This study will assess the efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors in cardiovascular outcomes in patients with T2DM and cardiovascular disease. Our systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and involved a literature search utilizing PubMed and Google Scholar databases. In addition, we thoroughly searched for studies conducted in the last 10 years that corresponded with our outlined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Our search yielded 779 articles. The articles were then quality-checked before inclusion. We ultimately selected six randomized controlled trials and two meta-analyses of research articles after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Our research study included 91,796 T2DM and cardiovascular disease patients. We examined cardiovascular outcomes among these T2DM patients, such as major adverse cardiac events (MACE), blood pressure, heart failure, and hospitalizations. Our study showed that SGLT2 inhibitors significantly reduce weight and blood pressure due to their natriuretic effects. In addition, they also improve heart failure symptoms and reduce hospitalizations.