Fluid Overload and Precision Net Ultrafiltration in Critically Ill Patients

Link to article at PubMed

Cardiorenal Med. 2022 Oct 6. doi: 10.1159/000527390. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Fluid overload is present in two-thirds of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury and is associated with morbidity, mortality, and increased healthcare resource utilization. Kidney replacement therapy is frequently used for net fluid removal (i.e., net ultrafiltration) in patients with severe oliguric acute kidney injury. However, ultrafiltration has considerable risks associated with it and there is a need for newer technology to perform ultrafiltration safely and to improve outcomes.

SUMMARY: Caring for a critically ill patient with oliguric acute kidney injury and fluid overload is one of the most challenging problems. Although diuretics are the first line treatment for management of fluid overload, diuretic resistance is common. Various clinical practice guidelines support fluid removal using ultrafiltration during kidney replacement therapy. Emerging evidence from observational studies in critically ill patients suggests that both slow and fast rates of net fluid removal during continuous kidney replacement therapy are associated with increased mortality compared with moderate UFNET rates. In addition, fast UFNET rates are associated with an increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Randomized trials are required to examine whether moderate UFNET rates are associated with a reduced risk of hemodynamic instability, organ injury and improved outcomes in critically ill patients. There is a need for newer technology for fluid removal in patients who do not meet traditional criteria for initiation of KRT. Emerging newer and miniaturized ultrafiltration devices may address an unmet clinical need.

PMID:36202071 | DOI:10.1159/000527390

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