Am J Kidney Dis. 2022 Aug 12:S0272-6386(22)00849-6. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2022.06.011. Online ahead of print.
Calciphylaxis is a life-threatening complication most often associated with chronic kidney disease that occurs as a result of the deposition of calcium in dermal and adipose microvasculature. However, this condition may also be seen in patients with acute kidney injury. The high morbidity and mortality rates associated with calciphylaxis highlight the importance to correctly diagnose and treat this condition. However, calciphylaxis remains a diagnosis that may be clinically challenging to make. Here, we review the literature on uremic calciphylaxis with a focus on its pathophysiology, clinical presentation, advances in diagnostic tools, and treatment strategies. We also discuss the unique histopathological features of calciphylaxis and contrast it with those of other forms of general vessel calcification. This review emphasizes the need for multidisciplinary collaboration including nephrology, dermatology, and palliative care to ultimately provide the best possible care to patients with calciphylaxis.