Crit Care Explor. 2022 May 11;4(5):e0702. doi: 10.1097/CCE.0000000000000702. eCollection 2022 May.
In patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia, both tocilizumab and baricitinib have been shown to have clinical benefit compared with placebo. To date, there are few data comparing the two treatments, and their relative benefits and harms are unknown. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of tocilizumab versus baricitinib in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia and hypoxemia.
DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.
SETTING: Seven inpatient acute-care hospitals in Wisconsin.
PARTICIPANTS: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19, hypoxemia, and Pao2-to-Fio2 ratio less than or equal to 300 mm Hg, who received either tocilizumab or baricitinib.
INTERVENTIONS: Electronic chart review.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were divided into tocilizumab and baricitinib cohorts based on actual medication received. The primary outcome was hospital discharge alive and free from mechanical ventilation within 60 days, assessed by logistic regression. Three hundred eighty-two patients were included: 194 in the tocilizumab cohort and 188 in the baricitinib cohort. Most baseline characteristics in the two cohorts were similar. All patients received dexamethasone. Two patients were lost to follow-up. In the remaining 380 patients, probability of successful discharge in the two cohorts was quantitatively similar in unadjusted, multivariate-adjusted, and propensity score-matched analyses. Hospital length of stay, rates of thromboembolic events, and rates of hospital-acquired infections were all similar in the two cohorts.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia and hypoxemia who receive dexamethasone, treatment with tocilizumab or baricitinib appears to result in similar outcomes.