J Hosp Med. 2022 Jun 6. doi: 10.1002/jhm.12848. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Bedside procedure services are increasingly employed within internal medicine departments to meet clinical needs and improve trainee education. Published literature on these largely comprises single-center studies; an updated systematic review is needed to synthesize available data.
PURPOSE: This review examined published literature on the structure and function of bedside procedure services and their impact on clinical and educational outcomes (PROSPERO ID: 192466).
DATA SOURCES: Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses framework, multiple databases were searched for publications from 2000 to 2021.
STUDY SELECTION, DATA EXTRACTION, AND DATA SYNTHESIS: Thirteen single-center studies were identified, including 12 observational studies and 1 randomized trial. Data were synthesized in tabular and narrative format. Services were typically staffed by hospitalists or pulmonologists. At a minimum, each offered paracentesis, thoracentesis, and lumbar puncture. While there was considerable heterogeneity in service structures, these broadly fit either Model A (service performing the procedure) or Model B (service supervising the primary team). Procedure services led to increases in procedure volumes and self-efficacy among medical residents. Assessment of clinical outcomes was limited by heterogeneous definitions of complication rates and by sparse head-to-head data involving suitable comparators. Published data pointed to high success rates, low complication rates, and high patient satisfaction, with a recent study also demonstrating a decreased length of stay.
CONCLUSIONS: There are relatively few published studies describing the characteristics of bedside procedure services and their impact on clinical and educational outcomes. Limited data point to considerable heterogeneity in service design, a positive impact on medical trainees, and a positive impact on patient-related outcomes.