Differences in inflammatory markers between coronavirus disease 2019 and sepsis in hospitalised patients

Link to article at PubMed

Clin Epidemiol Glob Health. 2022 May-Jun;15:101059. doi: 10.1016/j.cegh.2022.101059. Epub 2022 May 8.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory markers are pivotal for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and sepsis. This study compared markers between hospitalised patients with COVID-19 and those with bacterial sepsis.

METHODS: This retrospective single-centre cohort study included 50 patients with COVID-19 clinical stages II and III and 24 patients with bacterial sepsis. Both groups were treated according to the country's official standards. Leukocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, and D-dimer were registered at the time of patient's admission and 24, 48, and 72 h after initiating intrahospital treatment.

RESULTS: Upon admission, marker levels were high, with a significant decrease at 72 h after antibiotic therapy in the sepsis group. The leukocyte count was higher in deceased patients with sepsis. The mean ferritin levels were 1105 mcg/dl for COVID-19 and 525 mcg/dL for sepsis. Higher ferritin levels in COVID-19 (P = 0.001) seemed to be a predictor of higher mortality. Upon admission, the median D-dimer level was 0.68 mg/L for COVID-19 and 3 mg/L for patients with sepsis, whether recovered or deceased. As D-dimer, procalcitonin levels were higher in patients with sepsis (P = 0.001). CRP levels were equally elevated in both entities but higher in deceased patients with COVID-19.

CONCLUSION: Ferritin was the main inflammatory marker for COVID-19, and leukocytes, procalcitonin, and D-dimer were the main markers of sepsis. Markers that were most affected in deceased patients were CRP for COVID-19 and leukocyte for sepsis. The therapeutic implications of these differences require further study.

PMID:35574431 | PMC:PMC9080673 | DOI:10.1016/j.cegh.2022.101059

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