J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2022 Apr 16. doi: 10.1007/s11239-022-02650-4. Online ahead of print.
While direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) received expanded labeling for use in atrial fibrillation (AF) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) based on pharmacokinetic trials, little data exist regarding the use of DOACs for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in ESRD patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). This retrospective, descriptive cohort study evaluated adult patients with a diagnosis of ESRD on RRT and with a VTE diagnosis receiving apixaban therapy prior to or during admission. The primary outcome was to identify major bleeding events within 72 h of last apixaban dose administration. Secondary outcomes included new VTE while on apixaban, appropriateness of anticoagulation regimen with regards to FDA labeled dosing and frequency, anticoagulation regimen adjustments, and factor Xa inhibitor-specific anti-Xa levels if available. A total of 68 patients met criteria for inclusion in the final analysis. Major bleeding events occurred in 13.2% of patients receiving apixaban within the last 72 h. Recurrent thrombosis occurred in 7.4% of patients. The use of apixaban for VTE in patients with ESRD on RRT led to a higher risk of bleeding compared to that of landmark trials. Therefore, apixaban use should occur following shared decision making especially if there is no contraindication to warfarin.