J Neurol. 2022 Apr 8. doi: 10.1007/s00415-022-11101-2. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has been reported as a rare adverse event in association with thrombosis-thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) following COVID-19 vaccination.
METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of investigator-initiated registries including confirmed CVST cases, with the aim to calculate (1) the odds ratio of TTS-CVST versus non-TTS-CVST after vector-based vaccines and (2) after non-vector-based vaccines, (3) the in-hospital mortality ratio of TTS-CVST compared to non-TTS-CVST; and (4) the dependency or death at discharge among TTS-CVST compared to non-TTS-CVST cases.
RESULTS: Two eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis, comprising a total of 211 patients with CVST associated with COVID-19 vaccination. Vector-based COVID-19 vaccination was associated with a higher likelihood of TTS-associated CVST than with non-TTS-CVST (OR: 52.34, 95% CI 9.58-285.98). TTS-CVST was also associated with higher likelihood of in-hospital mortality (OR: 13.29; 95% CI 3.96-44.60) and death or dependency at discharge compared to non-TTS-CVST (OR: 6.70; 95% CI 3.15-14.26). TTS-CVST was recorded with a shorter interval between vaccination and symptom onset [Mean Difference (MD):-6.54 days; 95% CI - 12.64 to - 0.45], affecting younger patients (MD:-9.00 years; 95% CI - 14.02 to - 3.99) without risk factors for thromboses (OR:2.34; 95% CI 1.26-4.33), and was complicated more frequently with intracerebral hemorrhage (OR:3.60; 95% CI 1.31-9.87) and concomitant thromboses in other sites (OR:11.85; 95% CI 3.51-39.98) compared to non-TTS-CVST cases.
CONCLUSIONS: TTS-CVST following COVID-19 vaccination has distinct risk factor profile, clinical phenotype and prognosis compared to non-TTS-CVST. Further epidemiological data are required to evaluate the impact of different treatment strategies on outcome of TTS-CVST cases following COVID-19 vaccination.