Am J Cardiol. 2022 Mar 29:S0002-9149(22)00116-3. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.01.047. Online ahead of print.
Heart failure (HF) affects 6 million people in the United States and costs $30 billion annually. It is unclear whether improvements in length of stay and mortality over the last few decades hold true for both systolic and diastolic HF. To better assess the epidemiological and economic burden of HF, we assessed the trends in outcomes and costs for both systolic and diastolic HF. We identified hospitalizations for systolic and diastolic HF in the National Inpatient Sample database and evaluated trends over the period from 2004 to 2017, adjusting for demographics and co-morbidities. The proportion of patients admitted with an exacerbation of systolic HF increased from 42% to 63% over the study period. We found an overall decreasing trend between 2004 and 2011 in the length of stay for HF in general with a sharper decrease in diastolic than systolic HF. Inpatient mortality decreased between 2004 and 2007 and stabilized between 2008 and 2016. Systolic HF was associated with higher mortality than diastolic HF. The total inflation-adjusted cost did not change significantly over the study period, with systolic HF costing, on average, $3,036 more than diastolic HF per admission. In conclusion, systolic HF overtook diastolic HF, accounting for most HF hospitalizations in 2008. The higher hospitalization costs for systolic HF relative to diastolic HF may have resulted, in part, from greater use of advanced support devices in patients with systolic HF.