A Positive Fluid Balance in the First Week Was Associated With Increased Long-Term Mortality in Critically Ill Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Link to article at PubMed

Front Med (Lausanne). 2022 Mar 3;9:727103. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2022.727103. eCollection 2022.


INTRODUCTION: Early fluid balance has been found to affect short-term mortality in critically ill patients; however, there is little knowledge regarding the association between early cumulative fluid balance (CFB) and long-term mortality. This study aims to determine the distinct association between CFB day 1-3 (CFB 1-3) and day 4-7 (CFB 4-7) and long-term mortality in critically ill patients.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was conducted at Taichung Veterans General Hospital, a tertiary care referral center in central Taiwan, by linking the hospital critical care data warehouse 2015-2019 and death registry data of the Taiwanese National Health Research Database. The patients followed up until deceased or the end of the study on 31 December 2019. We use the log-rank test to examine the association between CFB 1-3 and CFB 4-7 with long-term mortality and multivariable Cox regression to identify independent predictors during index admission for long-term mortality in critically ill patients.

RESULTS: A total of 4,610 patients were evaluated. The mean age was 66.4 ± 16.4 years, where 63.8% were men. In patients without shock, a positive CFB 4-7, but not CFB 1-3, was associated with 1-year mortality, while a positive CFB 1-3 and CFB 4-7 had a consistent and excess hazard of 1-year mortality among critically ill patients with shock. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model identified that CFB 1-3 and CFB 4-7 (with per 1-liter increment, HR: 1.047 and 1.094; 95% CI 1.037-1.058 and 1.080-1.108, respectively) were independently associated with high long-term mortality in critically ill patients after adjustment of relevant covariates, including disease severity and the presence of shock.

CONCLUSIONS: We found that the fluid balance in the first week, especially on days 4-7, appears to be an early predictor for long-term mortality in critically ill patients. More studies are needed to validate our findings and elucidate underlying mechanisms.

PMID:35308497 | PMC:PMC8927621 | DOI:10.3389/fmed.2022.727103

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