Clin Cardiol. 2022 Mar 10. doi: 10.1002/clc.23800. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Over five million Americans suffer from heart failure (HF), and this is associated with multiple chronic comorbidities and recurrent decompensation. Currently, there is an increased incidence in vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). We aim to investigate the impact of HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in patients hospitalized with VPDs.
HYPOTHESIS: Patient with HFrEF are at higher risk for VPDs and they carry a higher risk for in-hospital complications.
METHODS: Retrospective analysis from all hospital admissions from the 2016-2018 National Inpatient Sample (NIS) using the ICD-10CM codes for patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of VPDs with HFrEF and those without reduced ejection fraction. Outcomes evaluated were in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), healthcare utilization, frequency of admissions, and in-hospital complications. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to adjust for confounders.
RESULTS: Out of 317 670 VPDs discharges, we identified 12 130 (3.8%) patients with HFrEF as a comorbidity. The most common admission diagnosis for VPDs was influenza virus (IV) infection (75.0% vs. 64.1%; p < .01), followed by pneumococcal pneumonia (PNA) (13% vs. 9.4%; p < .01). After adjusting for confounders, patients with HFrEF had higher odds of having diagnosis of IV (adjusted [aOR], 1.42; p < .01) and PNA (aOR, 1.27; p < .01). Patients with VPDs and HFrEF had significantly higher odds of mortality (aOR, 1.76; p < .01), LOS, respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, and mechanical ventilation for less than 96 h.
CONCLUSION: Influenza and PNA were the most common VPDs admitted to the hospital in patients with a concomitant diagnosis of HFrEF. They were associated with increased mortality and in-hospital complications.