BMC Emerg Med. 2022 Feb 21;22(1):28. doi: 10.1186/s12873-022-00584-x.
METHODS: Recent randomized control trials (RCTs) have confirmed that antibiotics in acute uncomplicated diverticulitis (AUD) neither accelerate recovery nor prevent complications or recurrences. A retrospective cohort study was conducted, including all consecutive AUD patients hospitalized 2015- 2018 at Helsingborg Hospital (HH) and Skåne University Hospital (SUS), Sweden. HH had implemented a non-antibiotic treatment protocol in 2014 while SUS had not. Main outcomes were proportion of patients treated with antibiotics, complications, recurrences, and adherence to routinely colon evaluation.
RESULTS: A total of 583 AUD patients were enrolled, 388 at SUS and 195 at HH. The diagnosis was CT-verified in 320 (83%) vs. 186 (95%) patients respectively (p < 0.001). Forty-three (11%) and 94 (48%) of patients respectively did not receive antibiotics during hospitalization (p < 0.001). CRP was higher in the antibiotic group compared to the non-antibiotic group, both at admission and peak (90 mg/L vs 65 mg/L; p = 0.016) and (138 mg/L and 97 mg/L; p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in recurrences (22.0% vs. 22.6%; p = 0.87) and complications (2.5% vs. 2.9%; p = 0.77) between the antibiotic/non-antibiotic groups.
CONCLUSION: The structured treatment protocol led to reduced antibiotic use and a higher standard of care in terms of CT-verification. Clinicians' compliance to the treatment protocol and best clinical practice was poor and warrants further studies.