Mayo Clin Proc. 2022 Feb 12:S0025-6196(21)00919-8. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2021.11.037. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and in-hospital gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) taking dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study is based on the Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China-ACS project, an ongoing collaborative registry and quality improvement project of the American Heart Association and the Chinese Society of Cardiology. A total of 25,567 patients with ACS taking DAPT from 172 hospitals from July 1, 2017, through December 31, 2018, were included. Multivariable Cox regression and propensity score-matched analyses were used to evaluate the association between PPI use and in-hospital GI bleeding.
RESULTS: Of these patients with ACS, 63.9% (n=16,332) were prescribed PPIs within 24 hours of admission. Patients using PPIs had a higher rate of GI bleeding compared with those not using PPIs (1.0% vs 0.5%; P<.001). In the multivariable Cox regression analysis, early PPI use was associated with a 58% higher risk of GI bleeding (hazard ratio, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.18; P=.005). Further propensity score matching attenuated the association but still showed that patients using PPIs had a higher rate of GI bleeding (0.8% vs 0.6%; P=.04).
CONCLUSION: In China, PPIs are widely used within 24 hours of admission in patients with ACS taking DAPT. An increased risk of GI bleeding is observed in inpatients with early PPI use. Randomized trials on early use of PPIs in patients with ACS receiving DAPT are warranted.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02306616.