Augmenting existing deterioration indices with chest radiographs to predict clinical deterioration

Link to article at PubMed

PLoS One. 2022 Feb 15;17(2):e0263922. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0263922. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: When hospitals are at capacity, accurate deterioration indices could help identify low-risk patients as potential candidates for home care programs and alleviate hospital strain. To date, many existing deterioration indices are based entirely on structured data from the electronic health record (EHR) and ignore potentially useful information from other sources.

OBJECTIVE: To improve the accuracy of existing deterioration indices by incorporating unstructured imaging data from chest radiographs.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Machine learning models were trained to predict deterioration of patients hospitalized with acute dyspnea using existing deterioration index scores and chest radiographs. Models were trained on hospitalized patients without coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and then subsequently tested on patients with COVID-19 between January 2020 and December 2020 at a single tertiary care center who had at least one radiograph taken within 48 hours of hospital admission.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Patient deterioration was defined as the need for invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation, heated high flow nasal cannula, IV vasopressor administration or in-hospital mortality at any time following admission. The EPIC deterioration index was augmented with unstructured data from chest radiographs to predict risk of deterioration. We compared discriminative performance of the models with and without incorporating chest radiographs using area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC), focusing on comparing the fraction and total patients identified as low risk at different negative predictive values (NPV).

RESULTS: Data from 6278 hospitalizations were analyzed, including 5562 hospitalizations without COVID-19 (training cohort) and 716 with COVID-19 (216 in validation, 500 in held-out test cohort). At a NPV of 0.95, the best-performing image-augmented deterioration index identified 49 more (9.8%) individuals as low-risk compared to the deterioration index based on clinical data alone in the first 48 hours of admission. At a NPV of 0.9, the EPIC image-augmented deterioration index identified 26 more individuals (5.2%) as low-risk compared to the deterioration index based on clinical data alone in the first 48 hours of admission.

CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Augmenting existing deterioration indices with chest radiographs results in better identification of low-risk patients. The model augmentation strategy could be used in the future to incorporate other forms of unstructured data into existing disease models.

PMID:35167608 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0263922

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