Prediction of Conventional Oxygen Therapy Failure in COVID-19 Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure by Assessing Serum Lactate Concentration, PaO2/FiO2 Ratio, and Body Temperature

Link to article at PubMed

Cureus. 2022 Feb 7;14(2):e21987. doi: 10.7759/cureus.21987. eCollection 2022 Feb.

ABSTRACT

One of the challenges that emerged during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and is still relevant today is the need to identify patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) who could benefit from conventional oxygen therapy (COT) - oxygen supplementation with nasal cannulas, Venturi masks, and non-rebreather masks - without recurring to advanced respiratory therapy, such as high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), non-invasive ventilation (NIV), or invasive mechanical ventilation. The aim of the study was to develop a clinical tool able to predict the failure of COT in COVID-19 patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with ARF. This was a retrospective monocentric cohort study carried out in the ED of the University Hospital of Bologna Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Polyclinic, Italy. The cohort comprised 101 COVID-19 patients with ARF from the first pandemic wave who received COT. This cohort was used to develop a scale that considers serum lactate concentration, partial arterial oxygen pressure/inspired oxygen fraction (PaO2/FiO2) ratio, and body temperature to predict COT failure, referred to as the Lactate, Oxygenation, and Temperature (LOT) score. The highest possible score was 17 points. The LOT score was associated with COT failure (area under the receiver operating curve or AUROC = 0.79, 95% CI 0.69 - 0.89, p < 0.001); the cut-off value of > 5 points had optimal predictive power and showed significantly higher 30-day mortality (log-rank χ2 = 28,828, p < 0.0001). The LOT score was able to effectively predict COT failure in COVID-19 patients with ARF. Patients with LOT score > 5 had a very high risk of therapy failure, and more advanced respiratory therapies must be considered in these patients.

PMID:35155050 | PMC:PMC8820760 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.21987

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