Semin Liver Dis. 2022 Feb 7. doi: 10.1055/a-1765-0056. Online ahead of print.
The World Health Organization describes antimicrobial resistance (AMR) as one of the biggest threats to global health, food security, and development with indiscriminate use of antimicrobials globally driving the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, resistant to 60% of antimicrobials in some countries. Infections with multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) have increased in recent decades in patients with cirrhosis, who are frequently prescribed antibiotics, regularly undergo invasive procedures such as large volume paracentesis and have recurrent hospitalizations, posing a particular risk in this already immunocompromised cohort of patients. In this review, we explore mechanisms underlying this vulnerability to MDRO infection; the effect of bacterial infections on disease course in cirrhosis; prevalence of MDROs in patients with cirrhosis; outcomes following MDRO infection; fungal infections; antibiotics and their efficacy; and management of MDRO infections in terms of detection, antimicrobial and non-antimicrobial treatments, prophylaxis, antibiotic stewardship, the gut microbiome, and technological interventions.