Thromb J. 2022 Feb 4;20(1):4. doi: 10.1186/s12959-021-00362-y.
BACKGROUND: Vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (VITT) is triggered by nCOV-19 adenovirus-vectored vaccines against SARS-CoV2. Pathogenesis has been mainly related to platelet activation via PF4-reactive antibodies that activate platelets and may cross-react with heparin. Data concerning optimal anticoagulation are anecdotal, and so far, there are scattered reports of danaparoid use in VITT management. Danaparoid has good efficacy and safety in treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. We report here our experience of the administration and monitoring danaparoid in VITT.
METHODS: We diagnosed a series of six hospitalized cases of VITT, based on the international diagnostic guidance. All VITT-related data were from the local electronic medical and laboratory record system and were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics.
RESULTS: Predominately women in their late 40's developed VITT on average 24 days (range 9-59) after the first ChAdOx1 dose. Clinical presentation included single or multiple venous and/or arterial thrombosis, moderate thrombocytopenia and high D-dimer levels. After detecting PF4 antibodies subcutaneous danaparoid was our first-line antithrombotic treatment with an average duration of three weeks. The median plasma anti-FXa activity was in the lower part of the therapeutic range and during the first week of danaparoid administration clinical symptoms, platelet counts, and fibrin turnover resolved or significantly improved. The average duration of hospital admission was 10 days [2-18]. One patient died but the other five patients recovered completely.
CONCLUSIONS: The clinical outcomes of our small cohort align with the earlier published reports, and support danaparoid as a rational option for the initial anticoagulation of VITT patients.