Heart Lung. 2022 Jan 24;53:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.hrtlng.2022.01.013. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Survival rates of critically ill COVID-19 patients are affected by various clinical features and laboratory parameters at ICU admission. Some of these predictors are universal but others may be population specific.
OBJECTIVE: To determine utility of baseline clinical and laboratory parameters in a multivariate regression model to predict outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients in a tertiary hospital in Croatia.
METHODS: 692 critically ill COVID-19 patients treated during a 10-month period were included in this retrospective observational trial to assess the risk factors determining mortality rates. Various anthropometric features, comorbidities, laboratory parameters, clinical features and therapeutic interventions were included in the analysis. ICU mortality rates and length of ICU stay were primary endpoints analyzed in this study.
RESULTS: After multivariate adjustment, only the SOFA score, PaO2/FiO2 and history of arterial hypertension had an effect on ICU mortality, as well as the need to initiate invasive mechanical ventilation. Increase in PaO2/FiO2 over the first 7 days was present in survivors, while reverse applied to SOFA. Length of ICU stay was 9 (4-14) days. Factors affecting survival times were admission from wards, congestive heart failure, invasive mechanical ventilation, bacterial superinfections, age > 75 years, SOFA score, and serum ferritin, CRP and IL-6 values at ICU admission.
CONCLUSION: Elevated inflammatory biomarkers and SOFA score at ICU admission were detected as significant predictors of ICU mortality in this cohort, while initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation is the most relevant interventional mortality risk factor in critically ill COVID-19 patients.