Am J Med. 2022 Jan 22:S0002-9343(22)00030-4. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2022.01.008. Online ahead of print.
Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous disease that can cause a wide array of non-specific symptoms when involving the gastrointestinal (GI) tract including weight loss, early satiety, change in bowel habits with diarrhea, constipation or alternating bowel pattern. Endoscopy with biopsy for Congo red staining establishes the diagnosis and fibril subtyping helps to guide targeted treatment options. Light chain amyloidosis is the most frequent subtype found throughout the GI tract. Transthyretin amyloidosis is most likely to be found on rectal biopsy. Management of the symptoms of GI tract involvement with amyloidosis relate to addressing the underlying symptom complex that is produced and generally abstracted from the management of severe forms of functional GI disorders. Attention to improving symptom management and nutrition status can improve quality of life in these patients.