World J Clin Cases. 2022 Jan 7;10(1):104-116. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v10.i1.104.
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with a better prognosis in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (the so-called obesity survival paradox), but conflicting results have been found.
AIM: To investigate the relationship between all-cause mortality and body mass index in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.
METHODS: This retrospective study included patients with community-acquired pneumonia hospitalized in the First Hospital of Qinhuangdao from June 2013 to November 2018. The patients were grouped as underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5-23.9 kg/m2), and overweight/obesity (≥ 24 kg/m2). The primary outcome was all-cause hospital mortality.
RESULTS: Among 2327 patients, 297 (12.8%) were underweight, 1013 (43.5%) normal weight, and 1017 (43.7%) overweight/obesity. The all-cause hospital mortality was 4.6% (106/2327). Mortality was lowest in the overweight/obesity group and highest in the underweight group (2.8%, vs 5.0%, vs 9.1%, P < 0.001). All-cause mortality of overweight/obesity patients was lower than normal-weight patients [odds ratio (OR) = 0.535, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.334-0.855, P = 0.009], while the all-cause mortality of underweight patients was higher than that of normal-weight patients (OR = 1.886, 95%CI: 1.161-3.066, P = 0.010). Multivariable analysis showed that abnormal neutrophil counts (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.55-3.65, P < 0.001), abnormal albumin levels (OR = 0.20, 95%CI: 0.06-0.72, P = 0.014), high-risk Confusion-Urea-Respiration-Blood pressure-65 score (OR = 2.89, 95%CI: 1.48-5.64, P = 0.002), and intensive care unit admission (OR = 3.11, 95%CI: 1.77-5.49, P < 0.001) were independently associated with mortality.
CONCLUSION: All-cause mortality of normal-weight patients was higher than overweight/ obesity patients, lower than that of underweight patients. Neutrophil counts, albumin levels, Confusion-Urea-Respiration-Blood pressure-65 score, and intensive care unit admission were independently associated with mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.