Predictors of Fecal Microbiota Transplant Failure in Clostridioides difficile Infection: An Updated Meta-analysis

Link to article at PubMed

J Clin Gastroenterol. 2022 Jan 20. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001667. Online ahead of print.


INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent/refractory Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) with a 10% to 20% risk of recurrence after a single FMT. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to evaluate the predictors of FMT failure.

METHODS: A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases through July 2021 was performed. All studies that evaluated risk factors associated with FMT failure in a multivariate model were included. We calculated pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for risk factors reported in ≥3 studies using a random-effects model.

RESULTS: Twenty studies involving 4327 patients (63.6% females) with recurrent/refractory CDI who underwent FMT were included. FMT failed in 705 patients (16.3%) with 2 to 3 months of follow-up in most studies. A total of 12 different risk factors were reported in a multivariate model in ≥3 studies. Meta-analysis showed that advanced age, severe CDI, inflammatory bowel disease, peri-FMT use of non-CDI antibiotics, prior CDI-related hospitalizations, inpatient status, and poor quality of bowel preparation were significant predictors of FMT failure. Charlson Comorbidity Index, female gender, immunosuppressed status, patient-directed donor, and number of CDI recurrences were not associated with FMT failure.

CONCLUSIONS: Adequate bowel preparation at the time of FMT and optimizing antibiotic stewardship practices in the peri-FMT period can improve the success of FMT. Patients with nonmodifiable risk factors should be counseled about the risk of FMT failure. Our results may help develop a risk stratification model to predict FMT failure in CDI patients.

PMID:35050941 | DOI:10.1097/MCG.0000000000001667

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