J Emerg Med. 2021 Oct 28:S0736-4679(21)00768-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2021.10.026. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with respiratory symptoms and renal effects. Data regarding fluid resuscitation and kidney injury in COVID-19 are lacking, and understanding this relationship is critical.
OBJECTIVES: To determine if there is an association between fluid volume administered in 24 h and development of renal failure in COVID-19 patients.
METHODS: Retrospective chart review; 14 hospitals in Indiana. Included patients were adults admitted between March 11, 2020 and April 13, 2020 with a positive test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 within 3 days of admission. Patients requiring renal replacement therapy prior to admission were excluded. Volumes and types of resuscitative intravenous fluids in the first 24 h were obtained with demographics, medical history, and other objective data. The primary outcome was initiation of renal replacement therapy. Logistic regression modeling was utilized in creating multivariate models for determining factors associated with the primary outcome.
RESULTS: The fluid volume received in the first 24 h after hospital admission was associated with initiation of renal replacement therapy in two different multivariate logistic regression models. An odds ratio of 1.42 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.99) was observed when adjusting for age, heart failure, obesity, creatinine, bicarbonate, and total fluid volume. An odds ratio of 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.02-2.05) was observed when variables significant in univariate analysis were adjusted for.
CONCLUSIONS: Each liter of intravenous fluid administered to patients with COVID-19 in the first 24 h of presentation was independently associated with an increased risk for initiation of renal replacement therapy, supporting judicious fluid administration in patients with this disease.