Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2022 Jan 18. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1740335. Online ahead of print.
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) continue to be major concerns for morbidity and mortality, especially in patients treated in the intensive care unit. With the rise in multidrug-resistant organisms, HAP and VAP treatment is challenged by the need for early appropriate treatment, with broad-spectrum agents, while still being aware of the principles of antibiotic stewardship. The two major society guidelines proposed a series of risk factors in their most recent guidelines to help identify patients who can most benefit from narrow- or broad-spectrum initial empiric antibiotic therapy. The guidelines reveal differences in the proposed risk factors and treatment approaches, as well as major similarities.