Classical and Molecular Techniques to Diagnose HAP/VAP

Link to article at PubMed

Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2022 Jan 18. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1739359. Online ahead of print.


Nosocomial pneumonia, including hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), are the most common nosocomial infections occurring in critically ill patients requiring intensive care. However, challenges exist in making a timely and accurate diagnosis of HAP and VAP. Under diagnosis of HAP and VAP can result in greater mortality risk, especially if accompanied by delays in the administration of appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Over diagnosis of HAP and VAP results in the unnecessary administration of broad spectrum antibiotics that can lead to further escalation of antibiotic resistance. Optimal diagnosis and management of HAP and VAP require a systematic approach that combines clinical and radiographic assessments along with proper microbiologic techniques. The use of more invasive sampling methods (bronchoalveolar lavage and protected specimen brush) may enhance specimen collection resulting in more specific diagnoses to limit unnecessary antibiotic exposure. Molecular techniques, currently in use and investigational technique, may improve the diagnosis of HAP and VAP by allowing more rapid identification of offending pathogens, if present, thus increasing both appropriate antibiotic treatment and avoiding unnecessary drug exposure.

PMID:35042263 | DOI:10.1055/s-0041-1739359

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