Fac Rev. 2021 Dec 6;10:82. doi: 10.12703/r/10-82. eCollection 2021.
Despite recent advances in the treatment of chronic heart failure, therapeutic options for acute heart failure (AHF) remain limited. AHF admissions are associated with significant multi-organ dysfunction, especially worsening renal failure, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. There are several aspects of AHF management: diagnosis, decongestion, vasoactive therapy, goal-directed medical therapy initiation and safe transition of care. Effective diagnosis and prognostication could be very helpful in an acute setting and rely upon biomarker evaluation with noninvasive assessment of fluid status. Decongestive strategies could be tailored to include pharmaceutical options along with consideration of utilizing ultrafiltration for refractory hypervolemia. Vasoactive agents to augment cardiac function have been evaluated in patients with AHF but have shown to only have limited efficacy. Post stabilization, initiation of quadruple goal-directed medical therapy-angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors, mineral receptor antagonists, sodium glucose type 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, and beta blockers-to prevent myocardial remodeling is being advocated as a standard of care. Safe transition of care is needed prior to discharge to prevent heart failure rehospitalization and mortality. Post-discharge close ambulatory monitoring (including remote hemodynamic monitoring), virtual visits, and rehabilitation are some of the strategies to consider. We hereby review the contemporary approach in AHF diagnosis and management.