Diagnostic accuracy of urinary antigen tests for legionellosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Link to article at PubMed

Respir Investig. 2021 Dec 28:S2212-5345(21)00212-4. doi: 10.1016/j.resinv.2021.11.011. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Urinary antigen tests (UATs) have been used for the early detection of legionellosis and have demonstrated moderate sensitivity and high specificity. However, the most recent systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2009 evaluated the accuracy of UATs; since then, UAT accuracy may have changed owing to advances and developments in UAT technology and epidemiological changes in the frequency of Legionella species that cause legionellosis. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to update the accuracy of UATs for legionellosis among patients with suspected pneumonia.

METHODS: Overall, 1326 studies were screened, 21 of which fulfilled the eligibility criteria for quality assessment and meta-analysis. Data from 5772 patients, including 1368 (23.7%) with the target condition (i.e., suspected legionellosis), were included in the analysis. The overall quality of the included studies, which was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool, was unclear.

RESULTS: The calculated pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-0.85) and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.99-1.00), respectively. Subpopulation analysis revealed that the accuracy of UATs for sensitivity and specificity for Legionella pneumophilia serogroup 1 was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.78-0.91) and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.99-1.00), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the sensitivity and specificity of UATs were moderate and high, respectively, which is comparable to the results reported in 2009. Therefore, UATs may be a useful method for the early detection of legionellosis caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The review protocol was prospectively registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000041080).

PMID:34972680 | DOI:10.1016/j.resinv.2021.11.011

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