World J Gastroenterol. 2021 Dec 7;27(45):7831-7843. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i45.7831.
BACKGROUND: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a life-threatening condition among patients with advanced liver disease. Data trends specific to hospital mortality and hospital admission resource utilization for HRS remain limited.
AIM: To assess the temporal trend in mortality and identify the predictors for mortality among hospital admissions for HRS in the United States.
METHODS: We used the National Inpatient Sample database to identify an unweighted sample of 4938 hospital admissions for HRS from 2005 to 2014 (weighted sample of 23973 admissions). The primary outcomes were temporal trends in mortality as well as predictors for hospital mortality. We estimated odds ratios from multi-level mixed effect logistic regression to identify patient characteristics and treatments associated with hospital mortality.
RESULTS: Overall hospital mortality was 32%. Hospital mortality decreased from 44% in 2005 to 24% in 2014 (P < 0.001), while there was an increase in the rate of liver transplantation (P = 0.02), renal replacement therapy (P < 0.001), length of hospital stay (P < 0.001), and hospitalization cost (P < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, older age, alcohol use, coagulopathy, neurological disorder, and need for mechanical ventilation predicted higher hospital mortality, whereas liver transplantation, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and abdominal paracentesis were associated with lower hospital mortality.
CONCLUSION: Although there was an increase in resource utilizations, hospital mortality among patients admitted for HRS significantly improved. Several predictors for hospital mortality were identified.