Racial differences in cardiopulmonary outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients with acute kidney injury

Link to article at PubMed

Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2021 Dec 22;22(4):1667-1675. doi: 10.31083/j.rcm2204174.


In-hospital acute kidney injury (IH-AKI) has been reported in a significant proportion of patients with COVID-19 and is associated with increased disease burden and poor outcomes. However, the mechanisms of injury are not fully understood. We sought to determine the significance of race on cardiopulmonary outcomes and in-hospital mortality of hospitalized COVID-19 patients with AKI. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients hospitalized in Grady Health System in Atlanta, Georgia between February and July 2020, who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) on qualitative polymerase-chain-reaction assay. We evaluated the primary composite outcome of in-hospital cardiac events, and mortality in blacks with AKI versus non-blacks with AKI. In a subgroup analysis, we evaluated the impact of AKI in all blacks and in all non-blacks. Of 293 patients, effective sample size was 267 after all exclusion criteria were applied. The mean age was 61.4 ± 16.7, 39% were female, and 75 (28.1%) had IH-AKI. In multivariable analyses, blacks with IH-AKI were not more likely to have in-hospital cardiac events (aOR 0.3, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 0.04-1.86, p = 0.18), require ICU stay (aOR 0.80, 95% CI 0.20-3.25, p = 0.75), acute respiratory distress syndrome (aOR 0.77, 95% CI 0.16-3.65, p = 0.74), require mechanical ventilation (aOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.12-2.10, p = 0.35), and in-hospital mortality (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 0.26-7.50, p = 0.70) when compared to non-blacks with IH-AKI. Regardless of race, the presence of AKI was associated with worse outcomes. Black race is not associated with higher risk of in-hospital cardiac events and mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients who develop AKI. However, blacks with IH-AKI are more likely to have ARDS or die from any cause when compared to blacks without IH-AKI.

PMID:34957809 | DOI:10.31083/j.rcm2204174

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