Sleep Apnoea and Heart Failure

Link to article at PubMed

Eur Respir J. 2021 Dec 23:2101640. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01640-2021. Online ahead of print.


Heart Failure (HF) and Sleep-Disordered-Breathing (SDB) are two common conditions that frequently overlap and have been studied extensively in the past three decades. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) may result in myocardial damage, due to intermittent hypoxia increased sympathetic activity and transmural pressures, low-grade vascular inflammation and oxidative stress. On the other hand, central sleep apnoea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSA-CSR) occurs in HF, irrespective of ejection fraction either reduced (HFrEF), preserved (HFpEF) or mildly reduced (HFmrEF). The pathophysiology of CSA-CSR relies on several mechanisms leading to hyperventilation, breathing cessation and periodic breathing. Pharyngeal collapse may result at least in part from fluid accumulation in the neck, owing to daytime fluid retention and overnight rostral fluid shift from the legs. Although both OSA and CSA-CSR occur in HF, the symptoms are less suggestive than in typical (non-HF related) OSA. Overnight monitoring is mandatory for a proper diagnosis, with accurate measurement and scoring of central and obstructive events, since the management will be different depending on whether the sleep apnea in HF is predominantly OSA or CSA-CSR. SDB in HF are associated with worse prognosis, including higher mortality than in patients with HF but without SDB. However, there is currently no evidence that treating SDB improves clinically important outcomes in patients with HF, such as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

PMID:34949696 | DOI:10.1183/13993003.01640-2021

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *