Immun Inflamm Dis. 2021 Dec 22. doi: 10.1002/iid3.582. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Abnormal inflammation coagulation biomarker levels of troponin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and D-dimer levels in serum have been demonstrated to be associated and involved in the disease progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
METHODS: First: the study aimed to investigate the correlation of troponin, CRP, d-dimer, white blood cell (WBC) and polymerase chain reaction-cycle threshold (PCR-Ct) within COVID-19 survivors (143 patients; 79 males, 64 females) and in deceased (30 patients; 12 males, 18 females) group. Also, assessing any differences between both groups in studied parameters. Second: a correlation study of studied parameters' level has been conducted within families (41 patients; 23 males [seven deaths] and 18 females [eight deaths]) that lost more than one member due to the severity of the disease. Also, differences between these family and control group (132 patients; 69 males and 63 females) group in studied parameters have been assessed.
RESULTS: In the first week of hospitalization, there were significant differences in D-dimer, CRP and troponin level between survived and deceased patient groups. In the second week of the admission, both groups had significant differences in the level of all studied parameters; troponin I, D-dimer, CRP, and WBCs. WBC levels positively correlated to CRP in male survivors (r = 0.75, p < 0.0001), and to troponin in deceased male patients (r = 0.74, p = 0.007). The second week of patient admission was critical in the group of families who lost more than one person, when troponin was correlated positively with D-dimer, CRP, and WBCs.
CONCLUSION: Troponin, D-dimer, CRP, and WBCs level were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients who died than in COVID-19 survivors. High troponin and WBC levels, were considerably associated with families that lost more than one member, when compared with the unrelated COVID-19 patient control.