Endocr Pract. 2021 Dec 15:S1530-891X(21)01414-2. doi: 10.1016/j.eprac.2021.12.007. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Whether new glucose-lowering drugs increases the risk of pancreatitis in individuals with type 2 diabetes remains controversial. This present network meta-analysis aims to investigate the risk of pancreatitis associated with the use of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched. The literature was published from the date of their inception to July 21, 2021, including placebo-controlled or head-to-head trials of 2 new glucose-lowering drugs. Relative ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the risk of GLP-1 agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors for pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer among patients with type 2 diabetes.
RESULTS: Seventeen studies were identified, covered 102257 participants. The pooled results showed a neutral relationship between GLP-1 agonists and pancreatitis (Overall RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.31-3.00) or pancreatic cancer (Overall RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.31-4.10) compared to placebo. Meanwhile, DPP-4 inhibitors were not be associated with the increased risk of pancreatitis (Overall RR, 1.60; 95% CI, 0.25-11.00) or pancreatic cancer (Overall RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.26-2.40). Among them, lixisenatide and saxagliptin may be the safest drug compared to other drugs according to the ranking of probability. Sensitivity and subgroup analysis confirmed the stability of the core results.
CONCLUSION: The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that GLP-1 agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors are safe with respect to pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer risk compared to placebo. This conclusion may provide useful evidence for correlated clinical researches.